Why did window-breaking play such a prominent part in nineteenth century urban disturbances? In all of the reform riots discussed in this Intergroup Dynamics project, broken windows are a regular feature. After collectively ‘processing’ and/or shouting, hissing and groaning at premises associated with their opponents, crowds frequently turned to window-breaking as an opening act of… Continue reading I love the sound of breaking glass: stone-throwing, riot and compensation in early nineteenth century England
The “anti-reform” Worcester plate – a time capsule from 1832
The Context The period of 1830-1832 in Britain was marked by waves of protests and disturbances demanding reform of the electoral system. In 1830 the existing arrangements, which dated back to the rule of Henry VI, enfranchised less than three percent of the population, mostly significant land and property owners. With a few exceptions, women,… Continue reading The “anti-reform” Worcester plate – a time capsule from 1832
‘Episcopal treason and plot’: effigy burning in the autumn 1831 reform protests
In our Overall Survey of Protest events in Britain and Ireland in response to the defeat of the Second Reform Bill from October to December 1831, one prevalent activity that was difficult to categorise was the practice of parading and burning of effigies in public locations, sometimes outside the residence of the ‘victim’. This article presents some examples we found.
The defeat of the Second Reform Bill in October 1831 – An overview of public responses (part 3 – Black flags and dumb peals: the spread of news of the defeat )
Black flags and dumb peals (part 3) looks at the spread of the news of the defeat and the consequent public reactions across Britain and Ireland.
The defeat of the Second Reform Bill in October 1831 – An overview of public responses (part 2 – In the metropolis)
In the metropolis… considers initial public reactions to news of the defeat of the reform bill in London by studying public meetings, protests and disturbances over the five days after the announcement.
The defeat of the Second Reform Bill in October 1831 – An overview of public responses (part 1 – the overall survey)
The overall survey explains the methodology of the data gathering and provides an assessment of the observations along with maps and animations displaying the data over space and time.